3D Printing: Design – Nametags

Overview

In this lesson, you will learn how to create a personal 3D nametag using TinkerCAD

Before you start

  • Have an internet connected laptop/desktop
  • Has already created a TinkerCAD account
  • Has familiarity with TinkerCAD controls
  • Mouse (optional)

Procedure

  1. Starting with an empty workplace, find and place the ‘Box’ object from the right panel to act as the primary base of the nametag.
    • Decrease the height of the box by dragging one of the ‘white’ boxes located on the top surface of the box.

    • To change the length of the box, drag one of the ‘black’ boxes located on each side of the box.

  1. Find and place the object ‘Text’ from the right panel to act as your name.
    • You can change the height of the ‘text’ object by dragging the top ‘white’ box (Similar to the previous step).

    • You can change the text from the shapes options window located in the top right. For demonstration purposes, we will leave it at ‘TEXT’.

  1. Finally, find and place the object ‘Tube’ from the right panel to act as your nametag’s hook.
    • Similar to the previous steps, you can adjust the position and size of the object by dragging the small white/black boxes.

  1. Once you have finished placing and resizing your objects, select all objects by hitting the command ‘Ctrl+A’
    • You should see all of the objects highlighted. From there, click on the ‘Group’ tool in the top toolbar. As it says in the name, it groups all individual objects into a single one.

Complete!

You have successfully created a personal nametag! Try out different creations by adding more shapes, resizing objects, and more.

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RPi Node-Red: Push Button+ RGB LED or Buzzer

Parts List:

1x RGB LED

1x Push Button

1x Piezoelectric Buzzer

Getting Started:

Setting up the Hardware

Setting up Node-Red

Start Node-Red and navigate to 127.0.0.1:1880.  Drag one Raspberry Pi input node and five Raspberry Pi output nodes into the flow area.

Double click on the Raspberry Pi input node to open its configuration menu.  Set the Pin to GPIO25.  Name the node “Button”. Set the Resistor to “pulldown”.

Button Input Node

 

Double click on the unmodified Raspberry Pi output node.  Set Pin to GPIO16.  Set Type to PWM output.  Set Frequency to 100.  Name the node “buzzer”.

Buzzer Out Node

For this step, we are going to setup the output nodes for each RGB node. Double click on one of the Raspberry Pi output nodes.  Set the Red Pin to GPIO13Green Pin to GPIO19, and Blue Pin to GPIO26. Check the box to Initialise pin state?  select low (0) from the drop down menu.  Name each node with its respective “Red, Green, Blue”.

Red Out Node

Green Out Node

Blue Out Node

Wire each output node to the single input node and deploy the flow.

If everything is working properly the LED should illuminate and the buzzer should activate for a short period of time after the button has been pressed.  To deactivate either the buzzer or LED simply delete the wire in Node-Red connecting the associated node with the Button node.

Whats Next?

  • What other combinations can you make with items in your kit?
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RPi Node-Red: PIR + RGB LED or Buzzer

Parts List:

1x RGB LED

1x PIR

1x Piezoelectric Buzzer

Getting Started:

Setting up the Hardware

Setting up Node-Red

Start Node-Red and navigate to 127.0.0.1:1880.  Drag one Raspberry Pi input node and five Raspberry Pi output nodes into the flow area.

Double click on the Raspberry Pi input node to open its configuration menu.  Set the Pin to GPIO20.  Name the node “PIR”.

Double click on the unmodified Raspberry Pi output node.  Set Pin to GPIO16.  Set Type to PWM output.  Set Frequency to 100.  Name the node “buzzer”.

Buzzer Out Node

For this step, we are going to setup the output nodes for each RGB node. Double click on one of the Raspberry Pi output nodes.  Set the Red Pin to GPIO13Green Pin to GPIO19, and Blue Pin to GPIO26. Check the box to Initialise pin state?  select low (0) from the drop down menu.  Name each node with its respective “Red, Green, Blue”.

Red Out Node

Green Out Node

Blue Out Node

Wire each output node to the single input node and deploy the flow.

If everything is working properly the LED should illuminate and the buzzer should activate for a short period of time after the PIR has detected movement.  To deactivate either the buzzer or LED simply delete the wire in Node-Red connecting the associated node with the PIR node.

Whats Next?

  • What other combinations can you make with items in your kit?
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RPi Node-Red: RGB LED

Parts List:

1x RGB LED Board

4x Female-Female Jumper Wires

Getting Started:

Setting up the hardware:

Connecting the RGB LED Module

Setting up on Node-Red:

Have three out nodes, each representing one of the three outputs. For each out node, have two inject nodes (on and off)

Setting up Out Nodes

Configure Red output to GPIO13 (pin 33)

 

Configure Green output to GPIO19 (pin 35)

Configure Blue output to GPIO26 (pin 37)

 

Setting up Inject Nodes:

Configure ‘off’ switch for inject node – Set payload to 0

Configure ‘on’ switch for inject node – Set payload to 1

Deploy the flow

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RPi Node-Red: Push Button

Parts List:

Push Button

3x Female-Female Jumper Wires

What is a Push Button?

A push button is a momentarily activated button.  When the button mechanism is fully depressed an internal electrical connection is made and this newly made connection can be read as the activation of the button.

Getting Started:

 

Setting up Node-Red

Start Node-Red and navigate to 127.0.0.1:1880.  Drag a Raspberry Pi input node and a Debug node into the flow area.

Double click on the Raspberry Pi input node to open its configuration menu.  Set the Pin to GPIO25.  Set Resistor? to pulldown.  You can Name the node anything, I chose “button”.

The debug node can be left with it’s default settings, wire the button node to the debug node and deploy the flow.

If everything has been put together correctly you should see the number under the button node in the Node-Red flow change from a 0 to a 1 when the button is activated and from 1 to 0 when the button is deactivated.  You should also be able to see a record of the button activation in the debug tab of Node-Red.

Whats Next?

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automatically running node-red, as root

This tutorial shows you how to have node-red start and run as root instead of a normal user.

This is necessary for the RGB Matrix node: node-red-contrib-easybotics-led-matrix

Open a terminal and paste in the following lines:

sudo systemctl enable nodered.service
sudo npm config set unsafe-perm true

Now Node-Red will start automatically when the Raspberry Pi boots up.
The second line tells npm that we intended to run it as root; and that its okay to install nodes in protected directories.

The systemd service that we enabled is really just a type of script that lives in a file somewhere.

Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/nodered.service → /lib/systemd/system/nodered.service.

So if we want to change the user that runs node-red, we need to edit the file, this can be done with this fancy one liner:

d=/lib/systemd/system/nodered.service && sudo sed "s/User=pi/User=root/;s/Group=pi/Group=root/" $d > tmp && sudo mv -f tmp $d

When pasted into the terminal and ran, this bash expression will edit the nodered.service file and change the user to ‘root’.

If you have flows and nodes that you wish to keep, you can use this command to edit your node-red settings to keep using your old home-directory:
But be warned, this one line will only work after node-red has run atleast once as root; seeing as this is when the settings file it is editing is created.
An easy way to ensure this is to reboot after doing the one liner above, and then run the one liner below; and then finally reboot again.

d=/root/.node-red/settings.js && sudo sed "/.*userDir:*./c\userDir: '\/home\/pi\/.node-red\/'," $d > tmp && sudo mv -f tmp $d<br ></br >

Some nodes, such as the led-matrix require the soundcard to be disaabled
there’s a command for that too:

d=/boot/config.txt && sudo sed "/.*dtparam=audio=on*./c\dtparam=audio=off" $d > tmp && sudo cp -f tmp $d

 

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Air Quality Monitor Kau Coffee Mill

NOTICE – The Spec-PPB SO2 PPB data along with the other sensors is an experimental sensor and should be treated as such, it is interesting to track the numbers but accurate results would require calibration and comparison with official data. Please do not use this data as a basis for any important decisions. This is an educational project built by high school students from around the island of Hawaii.
Thingspeak Channel Link

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Air Quality Monitor Keaau Shelter

NOTICE – The Spec-PPB SO2 PPB data along with the other sensors is an experimental sensor and should be treated as such, it is interesting to track the numbers but accurate results would require calibration and comparison with official data. Please do not use this data as a basis for any important decisions. This is an educational project built by high school students from around the island of Hawaii.
Thingspeak Channel Link

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Air Quality Monitor Volcano School of Arts and Sciences

NOTICE – The Spec-PPB SO2 PPB data along with the other sensors is an experimental sensor and should be treated as such, it is interesting to track the numbers but accurate results would require calibration and comparison with official data. Please do not use this data as a basis for any important decisions. This is an educational project built by high school students from around the island of Hawaii.
Thingspeak Channel Link

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Air Quality Monitor Rainbow Falls – DOH Co-Located

NOTICE – The Spec-PPB SO2 PPB data along with the other sensors is an experimental sensor and should be treated as such, it is interesting to track the numbers but accurate results would require calibration and comparison with official data. Please do not use this data as a basis for any important decisions. This is an educational project built by high school students from around the island of Hawaii.
Thingspeak Channel Link

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Air Quality Monitor Pahoa Shelter

NOTICE – The Spec-PPB SO2 PPB data along with the other sensors is an experimental sensor and should be treated as such, it is interesting to track the numbers but accurate results would require calibration and comparison with official data. Please do not use this data as a basis for any important decisions. This is an educational project built by high school students from around the island of Hawaii. Thingspeak Channel Link

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Air Quality Monitor Papaya Farms Road – Dragon’s Eye Farm

NOTICE – The Spec-PPB SO2 PPB data along with the other sensors is an experimental sensor and should be treated as such, it is interesting to track the numbers but accurate results would require calibration and comparison with official data. Please do not use this data as a basis for any important decisions. This is an educational project built by high school students from around the island of Hawaii.
Thingspeak Channel Link

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VOG

NOTICE – The Spec-PPB SO2 PPB data along with the other sensors is an experimental sensor and should be treated as such, it is interesting to track the numbers but accurate results would require calibration and comparison with official data. Please do not use this data as a basis for any important decisions. This is an educational project built by high school students from around the island of Hawaii.

Links to the data from the sensors:

Papaya Farms Road – Dragon’s Eye Farm

Pahoa Shelter

Rainbow Falls – DOH Co-located

Keaau Shelter

Volcano School of Arts and Sciences – has internet issues currently

Ka’u Coffee Mill 

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Psychology, brain research, and the growth mindset

“You can bring a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink” is a classic saying expressed by many frustrated teachers, parents, and presumably horse owners that expresses a sentiment associated with the lack of willingness of an individual to engage with the materials in front of them that that are likely to be helpful to them.   What is it about the horse, or the student that keeps them from engaging?  Brain research has shown that the brain’s fight or flight response (amygdala) is activated in stressful situations in which one’s social status is threatened.  An unprepared student who sits in front of a Raspberry Pi device  with a lot of wires, buttons, and weird looking sensors may feel threatened and choose not to engage.  Looking incompetent in front of peers, especially for teens, can be a very stressful experience.  Both psychology and brain research provide us with clues to help mitigate this stress response and convert the experience into an opportunity for growth.  Play is perhaps the most important and natural method to shoot past the “engagement breaks” being applied by the amygdala in a new learning situation.  Teaching students about the concept of the growth and fixed mindset provides self aware students with a tool reframe their fears into learning opportunities.

Play is an essential part of growth for all animals.  Kittens playing with their tails, and human children playing in a sandbox are both examples of healthy neural development in which the limits of the surroundings are explored and “learned”.   Play as a research topic is huge.  Brain imaging studies have shown that when play is occurring, its difficult for the flight or fight response (amygdala) to be engaged.    For students who have not traditionally been successful in school or in STEM topics, the need to reframe potentially stressful learning situations is imperative.  Students can not truly learn when they are scared.  What we tend to see in the classroom are behaviors that a student can hide behind when they are challenged to learn something that threatens them.   In the T3 alliance, we begin with, ice breakers,  brush bots, and Minecraft (a sandbox game) because they help replace fears with a sense of creative exploration.  When these activities are done as part of a group in a fun and festive way, a bonding experience occurs that helps form social connections that are essential for human growth.  At later points in the program, students play with combining various sensors and outputs in order to “do” something cool. When this is combined with the direct instruction of growth and fixed mindset measurable progress is observable.

Growth and fixed minutes are terms coined by Carol Dweck to describe how students perceive themselves and their relationship to their learning.  Fixed mindset students essentially believe that their intelligence is fixed and that a new learning situation is a threat to their status.  Its likely that a student with this paradigm would see a raspberry pi and a bunch of wires and sensors as threatening.  Students that exhibit Growth mindset, in contrast, see a new learning situation as an opportunity for growth.  They are more likely to embrace the challenge and “play” with the various components.  Not knowing how to do something is an opportunity to learn, asking for help is not seen as a sign of weakness to them.  Teaching students about these mind sets in a non threatening environment gives them a framework to draw upon in a more frustrating situation later on.  The same problem solving skills used fix a brush bot can be employed when setting up an elaborate self driving vehicle.  Teachers who understand the difference between effort based praised (growth mindset) and label based praise (fixed mindset) have tremendous power to influence a student’s resilience.

A student who is confident in their ability to “play” with a new piece of technology, gain an understanding of its limitations, and ask for help within a safe community is poised to find meaningful ways to apply it towards the betterment of the community at large.  In the t3 alliance program we aim to curate an environment in which students feel safe to explore the limitations of a technology and then find ways to allow students to apply that technology to a problem of appropriate measure.  While creating an engaging and nurturing environment is the critical first step, the power of the program lies within the community engagement opportunity that is fostered through the design thinking process.   

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Puerto Rico workshop

Puerto Rico workshop Blog – Adam Low

Day 1

I was a bit nervous setting up for my class this morning with the 16 T3alliance students at the Upward Bound program in Puerto Rico. I hadn’t spoken Spanish to a group of teens since early in my teaching career when I taught at bilingual schools in Colombia and Ecuador.  I always try to remember that new students want to know who you are, and want to know that you care about who they are.

I spent the prior evening preparing a slideshow with a bit about my family, my background, and my role in T3 alliance.  I finished with an exciting set of stories about what students in our T3alliance program were doing in Hawaii.  The kids were visibly excited to set up cameras and sensors and make the kinds of things I had described.

After just having helped students in our Hawaii program complete this kind project in just under a day, I felt pretty confident of where things were going when I asked the students set up their Raspberry Pi boxes.  To my surprise, students weren’t able to get online because of a discrepancy between the clock on the pi’s and what the browser expected to see.  I spent several minutes trying to fumble around with one students pi, while at the same time realizing that they had not had the ability to use the internet up until this point.

I was shocked, and was preparing to teach all the students how to set up the LED light ring and camera with words alone, when a student in the back of the room came forward with a solution that he had found on some website.  It involved going into the terminal, and setting the date.  After this, we were able to reboot the pi’s and access the t3alliance website.

A few students stepped forward and made it work for everyone.  A sense of relief washed over me, because I rely on the website (or someone else who is more knowledgeable than I) to know what goes where in Node Red.  Here is a forum post describing how to fix it.

The students were eager to try everything on the website.  I directed them to start with a the LED ring, and then the camera.   Some students were able to make their equipment do what the tutorials said, and others were stuck.  I had kids get up and walk around the room and work with each other to try to diagnose the problems.  This worked to a degree, but when I couldn’t figure something out, and none of the other kids could, we sometimes had to shrug our shoulders and try the next sensor.

By the afternoon, we had enough sensors working on a handful of different pi’s, that the kids had the idea of how things could be combined to make a project.  Francheska had converted the mini grant proposal I shared with her into Spanish and she helped lead the students through a brainstorming session about how the school might address the security issue from broken windows associated with Hurricane Maria.  The students, with the help of Francheska, divided themselves into teams with specific tasks associated with gaining an understanding of the problem and brainstorming some possible solutions.

After the students left I had a chance to meet Steven, the regular instructor for the T3alliance program.  He wasn’t at the training in Reno, but he had familiarized himself with the pi and taught the students to use the sensors with python.  He will work with me tomorrow.

After everyone left, I had a chance to re-learn Node Red and build a tutorial for the project.  I learned just how much I was leaning on my team in Hawaii to do all of the “complicated” stuff.   I can appreciate what the instructors in the T3programs across the country might be going through as they try to make the technology work.

There are now several new posts on the site, one that will hopefully be fun for all your students is the Node Red Selfie Station set up post.  I plan to share this with the students here in Puerto Rico tomorrow.  If all goes well, they will be able to turn the technology described here into a security system for the university.

Day 2

On the second day of the training the students came into class and I pointed them directly at the tutorials.  I was eager to share everything as quickly as possible, and get the students working successfully on building what I had put together the evening before.  The plan would be to have everyone build the button activated camera selfie station, and then we would collectively apply that same technology to building the security system for class room that had lost its windows from Hurricane Maria.    

Some students were good at following online tutorial, others were either waiting for me to tell them what to do, some were sneaking onto their phones when I was distracted helping another student.  The fact that some of these students spoke better English than others might have played a role. They were polite when I asked them to put them away, but I could tell they didn’t all feel comfortable getting up and moving around the room to ask others for help when I was busy.  

After about an hour 75% of the students had a successful selfie station.  I asked the student that had demonstrated her leadership skills to lead the class in hearing the reports on the tasks from the previous day.  Some students had not done their tasks, others had done an amazing amount of work, measuring, taking photos, and presenting everything in a nice folder.  A few of the mini grant proposals were filled out with clear information. Having a discussion with 17 students was tough, especially when some felt like they were good for doing their work and others felt not good for being slackers.  We walked to the room and discussed what the system might look like with the most engaged students. The other students stayed behind and spoke with Francheska about the mini grant proposal and staying engaged.

We developed a plan to mount the Raspberry Pi’s above one of the ceiling tiles, and cut tiny slits that would just fit the thin ribbon of the Pi cameras.  We unwound a network cable made extension wires that were able to fit perfectly into the jumper wire cables that came in the kit. There were enough jobs here that almost everyone stayed busy.  A few students were working on the Node Red Flow, some other students worked on getting an email that was ready to receive photos, and the rest of the students were hovering and offering some sort of help.

During lunch I made sure all the Pi’s were set up to be on the same network as the wifi hotspot so as to be able to control them through the network when no screens were attached.  The regular university wireless network worked to send data, but it didn’t work when we wanted to “talk” to the Pi’s. It has to do with the security they put in place.

 

We spent some time after lunch working on the final setup when Francheska announced that she had secured a field trip opportunity for our last day to an area that had experienced damage after Hurricane Maria.  The students were very excited, and eagerly accepted the renewed requirements to brainstorm ways that the class might use sensor technology to help in the community.

After a few final checks with the cellphone and making sure the wires had good connections, we came to the moment when we were ready to install the sensors.  The students carried the ceiling tile sensor setup to the classroom and got right to work. Suddenly everyone was involved. The ceiling tiles were moved and students passed the sensor to the area with the broken windows.  

 

After plugging in the pi’s to a power source, the students ran over to the various windows and began waving in front of the sensors.  One student was watching the gmail account on his phone and yelled out that he got something. The moment when the photo opened we knew it worked.  Collective congratulations went around, as the students purposely triggered more photos. Francheska went and spoke with the facilities director who came and saw the work of the students.  He was obviously impressed and thanked the students for their work. The students were glowing with pride and promised to maintain the system and help make sure it worked. Discussions began organically on how the system could be impoved or added to.  Plans were made for science type experiments to understand the limitations and capacity of the sensors and their adjustments.

This was a successful day in my book.  The students “felt” like they had done everything, but I knew just how much effort I had put in to assure that it would work.  What had really worked is that the ownership and efficacy had been allowed to foster and germinate. The kids “thought” that they could this kind of project now, and they saw stubborn determination and growth mindset as a skill that they had access to.  It will be exciting to visit some rural areas of Puerto Rico with these students to see what ideas they have for future projects.

Day 3

Today was an excursion day with the goals of exposing the students to some possible project locations, doing some service learning , and having fun.  The students arrived in the morning and submitted their homework from the previous class.  The ones who hadn’t finished their homework, filling out a mini grant for a possible project in the community using Raspberry Pi and sensor technology, had to go and finish their work while everyone else waited.  This method turned out to be very effective, as the students waiting gave suggestions and feedback to get the team on the trip as quickly as possible.

I used the time to go through the plans for the next several weeks of class with Steeven, the T3 instructor, and the students that Francheska and I had identified as the lead students in the class.   You could see the students I spoke with puffing their chest’s out as I told them how impressed I was with their effort and their growth mindset.  They agreed teach other students in the program how to use the website, set up the sensors, and continue modeling the growth mindset as they found new projects to work on.

Francheska gave me an Upward Bound shirt to wear on the field trip, and we piled into the van and headed off to El Yunque National Forest.  This area has been a protected tropical forest region since 1875 when Puerto Rico was a Spanish Colony.  Its a tropical rainforest with trails, waterfalls, and a number of endemic species.  It suffered greatly during Hurricane Maria and many of the roads and trails were still closed.

We went to the visitor center where Francheska and I spoke with Megan, the park superintendent, about partnership possibilities while the students viewed a natural history movie.  Megan was very supportive and said she would speak with scientists who are in the park about some possible projects.  She helped us understand how we would need to navigate the process of getting teams of students into the park to work with scientists and to install our home made sensors. When I informed the students about the conversation and the possibility for projects, they were visibly excited. 

After lunch, we went to long sandy beach on the south east corner of the island.  Francheska handed out garbage bags and had the kids work in pairs to pick up the beach.  Some of the trash may be due to Hurricane Maria, but most of it was likely left on the beach by the local visitors.  The experience was awesome, and students were eagerly finding trash stuck the many crevices between rocks partially buried the sand.

After an hour we had collected a small mountain of bags.  Francheska laid out the rules for getting in the water, and handed out a tennis ball.  For an hour the students played catch like elementary school children in the warm shallow waters while Francheska kept a watchful eye from her beach chair.  On the long ride home, the two students next to me fell asleep in a position that showed just how much energy they had expended during the day.

Francheska and Steeven understand the importance of allowing students to engage and give back to their community.  Giving back in a conscious way fulfills a basic human need for belonging.  The students here understand the expectations and rise to the challenges that are put in front of them.  I look forward to watching them grow over the next few years.

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Design Thinking Overview

When an individual first learns to use a particular piece of technology they generally look for a “recipe” type of approach.  In the T3alliance curriculum this looks like specific tasks or challenges that need to mastered.  Soldering a wire so that a button is able to function, or setting up a circuit so that an LED bulb works on a breadboard are examples of these types of tasks.  When your students are ready for something more, its time to introduce them to Design Thinking.

Design Thinking is a process that, when followed, leads to solutions that take into account the human experience.  Although the name design thinking and the movement that surrounds it has become popular during the rise of the Silicon Valley tech industry, at its core is the very old skill of empathetic listening and respectful problem solving.  In the T3 alliance program we use this process to facilitate student involvement in real world problems that have the potential for meaningful and impactful experiences.

The five stages of design thinking are described in this graphic.

The first stage of this process, empathize, is by far the most critical to the success of the process.  An instructor is always on the lookout for someone with a problem that is willing to ask for assistance in a way that gives a student interviewer a chance to understand the deeper human aspects.  The person with the problem can be considered a client if they meet some key criteria.  First, they know they are working with students and they agree to be kind and forgiving.  Second, they need to understand a little about the design thinking process and agree to be available to communicate with the student and maintain interest throughout the testing process.  Third they agree to appreciate the student for the effort they put into the process.

In a normal upbringing for a child this roll might be filled by a grandparent who knows just how to ask for help in such a way that a child embraces the challenge and is eager to talk about and receive praise after the task is completed.  The grandparent speaks to the child in a kind and loving way and knows that ignoring the child’s efforts will have negative consequences.  Most members of a community will be happy to fill this roll and will take it quite seriously.  Watch out for potential clients who are too busy, or ones that are such perfectionists that they want to do the work themselves.  Its assumed that if a student was ever working with a community member outside of a supervised environment, a background check would be completed.

Preparing a student for a positive empathetic interview experience involves preparing them with two levels of questions.  The first level is the basic 5 w’s of journalism.  Who are you, what is happening, when is it happening, where is it happening, and why is do they think it is happening.  This level of questioning has the potential to bring up a lot of useful information.  The second level is about digging a little deeper and uncovering how the client feels or would like users to feel in this situation.

The design thinking process guide that is produced by the Stanford design school is an excellent resource that goes through each stage in detail.  Here is a link to the design thinking process guide.

In the T3 alliance program we introduce the idea of a grant proposal as a stepping stone to building a prototype.  The mini grant proposal outlines the goals of the prototype, costs of the materials, the metrics for evaluation, and the deliverables (what they are responsible for reporting back) and is submitted to someone who ultimately signs off on the project’s costs.  This step can obviously be skipped when the prototypes involve only the use of inexpensive consumable materials.

Assembling the prototype with purchased materials is an heavy experience for many students.  There is a sense of responsibility and ownership that is healthy.  Its an opportunity to be communicative with team members and ask for help when its needed.   A poorly soldered electrical connection can cause lots of headaches further along in the process.

During the testing stage its a good idea to bring the client back in and experience the product or process design.  In some cases, refinement will need to occur, in others, it will be deemed successful.  A genuinely appreciative client will have a huge impact on a student’s sense of accomplishment.

This process is repeated as often as possible throughout the t3alliance program.  Each successful iteration of this process that a student engages in will engender a sense of efficacy and pride that will enable them to take on projects that require greater levels of collaboration with team members.

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